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Regulation Of Gene Expression

Let’s create an in-depth analysis of gene expression regulation. After reading this article you’ll learn about –

  1. Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes
  2. Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Regulation of Gene Expression
Regulation of Gene Expression

Gene is a part of DNA that specifies a protein/RNA. All the proteins/RNA are not required by the cell all the time. Some proteins are needed at some stage and other proteins are needed at another time.

  • Additionally, they could be required in higher amounts at one time, yet occasionally they may be required in higher amounts.
  • You will find yet another category of proteins that are always within the cell, such as the enzymes of the TCA cycle.
  • Consequently, genes could need for cell categories: 1. Constitutive genes: People genes whose products are continuously within the cell are call constitutive genes or housekeeping genes.
  • The action the need of the cell controlled as their products don’t need the cell action the need of the cell controlled.
  • The regulation is mainly the need of the cell. The gene or some associated the need of the cell according to the need of the cell. These changes are caused by a few proteins or modulators.
  • If a particular protein/compound puts a gene into operation then that protein is called stimulatory protein/compound and the process is called positive regulation.
  • Asteroid bodily hormone is destroyed this gene expression diminishes existence enhances the speed of gene expression. Once the bodily hormone is destroyed this gene expression diminishes.
  • The mechanism of regulation, though comparable regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes will be taken separately. Therefore regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes will be taken separately.

Lac Operon

Lac operon of E. coli is an inducible operon system that was discovered by Jacob and Monod (1961). Lac operon has three structural genes z, y and a.

In the induced operon, the structural genes transcribe a polycistronic mRNA which produces three enzymes. These are β-galactosidase, galactosidase permease, and galactosidase transacetylase.

  • β-galactosidase (z-gene) brings about hydrolysis of lactose to form glucose and galactose. Galactosidase permease (y-gene) is required for the entry of lactose into the bacterium.
  • Galactosidase transacetylase (a-gene) can transfer the acetyl group from acetyl Co-A to β-galactosidase.
  • The substance whose addition induces the synthesis of the enzyme is called an inducer. The inducer is a chemical that attaches to the repressor and changes the conformation of its operon binding site so that it no more remains attached to the operator.
  • The repressor of the lac operon is a tetrameric protein. It is made up of four subunits each having a molecular weight of 40,000.
  • If lactose is added, the repressor is rendered inactive so that it cannot remain bound to the operator gene and the synthesis of mRNA takes place.
  • Transcription is under negative control when the Lac repressor is inactivated by the inducer.

Also read:

DNA structure and function

RNA structure and function