## Lalit Narayan Mithila University B.Sc. Part-2 Physics Honours Syllabus

Paper-I and Paper-II with practical

There shall be two theory papers (**Paper-III** and **Paper-IV**), each of three hours duration and will carry 75 marks of each. There will be one practical paper of 50 marks of three hours duration.

## Paper-I

[Time – 3 hours]

[Full marks – 75]

**Five questions** are to be answered. **Question No. 1** will have **six short type questions**, out of which **three** will have to be answered. There will be **four questions** each from **Group-A** and **Group B**. **Two questions** from each Group will have to be answered, besides question number **one** which will be **compulsory**. These questions will be of equal value.

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### Group-A: Optics

**Fermat’s principle: –** Fermat’s principle and its application on the plane and curved surface.

**Cardinal points of an optical system:-** Two thin lenses separated by a distance, equivalent lens, different types of magnification; Helmholtz and Lagrange’s equations, paraxial approximation, introduction to matrix methods in the paraxial optical-simple application.

**Interference:-** Interference; Division of amplitude and division of wavefront, Young’s double-slit experiment, Lloyd’s mirror and Fresnel’s bi-prism, Phase change on reflection; Stoke’s treatment, Interference in thin films Parallel and Wedge-shaped films, Fringe is of equal inclination (Haidinger fringes) and fringes of equal thickness (Fizeau fringes), Newton’s ring; Measurement of wavelength and refractive index.

**Michelson’s interferometer: (i)** Idea of a form of fringes **(ii)** Determination of wavelength **(iii)** Wavelength difference **(iv)** Refractive index** (v **standardization of meter and **(vi)** visibility of fringes.

**Coherence:** Temporal and spatial coherence, Theory of partial coherence, Coherence trine and Coherence length, Purity of Spectral lines.

**Diffraction:** Fresnel diffraction; Fresnel’s assumptions, Fresnel’s half-period zones for a plane wave. Explanation of rectilinear propagation of light, Theory of zone plate, Multiple foci of a zone plate, Comparison of a zone plate with a convex lens.

**Diffraction due to (i)** a straight edge **(ii)** a rectangular aperture **(iii)** a small circular aperture and **(iv)** an opaque circular disc. Fresnel’s integrals, Cornu’s spiral; Fresnel’s **diffraction pattern due to (i)** a straight edge, **(ii)** a slit and **(iii)** a wire (qualitatively using Cornu’s spiral).

**Fraunhofer diffraction: –** Diffraction due to **a single slit, (ii) a double slit and (iii) a plane transmission grating. Rayleigh’s criterion of the resolution, Resolving Power and Dispersive power of a plane diffraction grating.**

Holography Principle of Holography, Recording and Reconstruction method, Theory of Holography as Interference between two plane waves.

### Group-B

**Electromagnetic waves and Electrodynamics Maxwell’s Equations:-** Maxwell Equation, displacement current, vector, and scalar potentials, Gauge transformations; Lorentz and Coulomb Gauge, Boundary Conditions at the interface between different media, Wave Equations, Plane waves in dielectric media, Poynting theorem and Poynting vector, Electromagnetic energy density, Physical concept electromagnetic field energy density, Momentum density and Angular momentum density.

**Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic waves:** Reflection and Refraction of a plane wave at a plane interface between dielectrics, Fresnel formula, Total internal reflection, Brewster’sangle, waves in conducting media, Metallic reflection (Normal incidence), skin depth, Maxwell’s equation in microscopic media (plasma), Characteristic plasma frequency, refractive index, Conductivity of ionized gas, Propagation of e.m. waves in ionosphere

**Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves:** Description of linear, circular and elliptical polarization, Propagation of e.m. waves in Anisotropic media, Symmetric nature of dielectric tensor, Fresnel’s formula, Uniaxial and Biaxial crystals, Light propagation in a uniaxial crystal, Double refraction, Polarization by double refraction, Nicol prism, ordinary and Extraordinary refractive indices. Production and Detection of Plane, Circulatory and Elliptically polarized light, Phase retardation Plates. Quarter-wave and Half-wave plates, Babinet compensator, and its uses, Analysis of polarized light.

**Rotatory polarization:** optical Rotation, Biot’s law of rotatory polarization, Fresnel’s theory of optical rotation, calculation of angle or rotation. Experimental verification of Fresnel’s theory, specific rotation. Laurent’s Half shade polarimeter.

**Optical fibres:** Numerical aperture, Step and Graded indices (Definitions only), Single and Multiple mode fibres (Concept and definition only).

## Paper-II

[Time- 3 hours]

[Full marks- 75]

**Five questions** are to be answered. **Question no. 1** will have **six short type questions**, out of which** three** will have to be answered. There will be four questions from each group (**group A **and **Group B**). **Two questions** from each group will have to be answered, besides **question number** one which will be **compulsory**. The questions will be of equal value.

### GROUP-A: Electricity

Seebeck effect, Peltier effect, Thomson effect and the relationships among their coefficients, Self and mutual inductance and their measurement.

**Varying Currents:** Growth and decay of documents in RC, RL and LCR circuits moving coil ballistic galvanometer, Current and charge sensitivity, electromagnetic damping, logarithmic decrement.

**Network theorems:** Ideal Constant voltage and constant-current sources, Network theorems.** (i) **Thevenin theorem, **(ii)** Norton theorem, **(iii) **Superposition theorem, **(iv)** Reciprocity theorem, and **(v) **Maximum power transfer theorem.

**Circuit analysis:** Kirchoff’s laws, Mesh and Node analysis of Dc, and A.C. circuits, Duality in networks. Equivalent Star (T) and delta (T) networks of a given network, start to delta and delta to star conversion, Wheatstone bridge and its application to Wein Bridge and Anderson Bridge.

**AC circuits:** complex reactance and impedance, series LCR circuit. **(i) **Resonance **(ii)** Power dissipation **(iii)**Quality factor and **(iv)** Bandwidth, Parallel LCR circuit.

### Group-B: Basic electronics

**Semiconductor diodes: –** p-n junction diode, I-V characteristics, Zener diode and its application, optoelectronic diodes; LED, Photodiodes. [2 Lectures]

Bipolar junction transistor (BJT):

**PNP and NPN structures:** active and saturation regions, characteristics of BJT, common emitter configuration, input, and output characteristics, A and B of a transistor and their integration, common base configuration, output characteristics, Two-port analysis of a transistor, the definition of h-parameters load line concept, emitter follower, biasing methods, stability factor, low-frequency model, Comparison of CB, CC, and CE amplifiers.

**Two terminal devices and their applications:-(i) **Rectifier diode, Half-wave rectifiers Rectifier diode, Half-wave rectifiers, Centre-tapped, and Bridge Full wave rectifiers, Calculation of ripple factor and rectification efficiency, The qualitative idea of C.L. and TI-filters **(ii) **Zener diode and voltage regulation **(iii)** Photodiode, **(iv)** Tunnel diode **(v)** LED **(vi)** Varactor diode.

**Amplifiers:** Transistor biasing and stabilization circuits, Fixed bias, and voltage divider bias, Transistor as 2-port network, h-parameter, Equivalent circuit, Analysis of a single-stage CE amplifier using the Hybrid model, Input and output impedance, Current, Resistance, voltage and Power gains, class A, B and C amplifiers. **Coupled amplifiers:** RC coupled amplifier and its frequency response of voltage gain.

**Feedback in amplifiers,** Effects of positive and negative feedback, on input impedance, output impedance and gain, stability, Distortion, and noise.

**Sinusoidal oscillators:** Barkhauson’s criterion for self-sustained oscillations, RC phase shift oscillator, Determination of frequency, Hartley oscillator, Colpitts oscillators.

**Non-Sinusoidal oscillators: **Astable and monostable multivibrators.

**A field-effect transistor (FET):** Classification of various types of FET’s, construction of junction FET, drain characteristics, biasing, operating region, pinch-off voltage, MOSFET construction of enhancement and depletion type, the principle of operation and characteristics, Elementary idea of CMOS and nMOS.

**Digital electronics ** Boolean theorem, Boolean identities, OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR gates, Ex-OR, Ex-NOR gates, universal gate, De-Morgan’s theorem, 1’s and 2’s complement, binary number addition, subtraction and multiplication functional completeness, S-o-P and P-o-S representation, Kamaugh map.

## Practical Syllabus Honours Paper

[Time – 3 hours]

[Full marks – 50 marks]

This paper will have the following experiments. The examinee will be asked to perform any one of them within the time duration of three hours. The full marks will be 50.

- Determination of wavelength by Newton’s ring.
- Determination of Magnifying power of Telescope and microscope.
- Refractive index of the prism by a spectrometer.
- Fresnel diffraction by a straight wire.
- Resolving the limit of the eye and a telescope.
- Determination of wavelength of light by biprism an optical bench.
- Measurement of magnetic dip by a Dip Circle.
- Measurement of Magnetic field by a search coil.
- Experiments based on a term n-couple.
- Calibration of voltmeter and ammeter by a potentiometer.
- Measurement of High and Low resistance.
- Study of series and parallel resonant circuit.
- Measurement of capacitance by the de-Sauty bridge.

## Lalit Narayan Mithila University B.Sc. Part-2 Physics subsidiary Syllabus

There will be one theory paper of three hours duration carrying 75 marks, besides one practical paper of three hours duration carrying 25 marks.

[Time – 3 hours]

[Full marks – 75]

The question paper will consist of three groups. Group-A will have six short type questions out of which three will have to be answered. Group-B and C each will have four questions, out of which two questions will have to be answered from each group. Question number one will be compulsory.

### Group-A

There will be **only one question** from this group, which will be compulsory **six short type questions** from topics in **Group B** and** C** will be asked. Examinees will be expected to answer any three of them.

### Group-B: Optics, Electromagnetic theory, X-rays and Laser

**Optics:-** Light as an electromagnetic wave; Full electromagnetic spectrum, properties of electromagnetic waves, Young’s experiment, intensity distribution, conditions of interference, interference in thin films, Newton’s ring, Fresnel and Fraunhofer class, Fresnel’s half-period zones, zone plate, Fraunhofer diffraction due to single silt and plane transmission grating.

**Electromagnetic theory: –** Maxwell’s equation of electromagnetic waves Electric and Magnetic vectors perpendicular to the direction of propagation, Poynting vector. **X-rays:-** Production and properties of X-rays, Mosley’s law, Bragg’s law and its experimental verification.

**Laser:-** Principle of a laser action, condition of laser coherence spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein’s A and B coefficients, Ruby laser, He-Ne laser, Population inversion.

### Group-C

**Electrostatics, Current electricity, magnetism, and Nuclear Physics:**

Magnet Boundary conditions at the surface of separation of two dielectrics. Dielectric polarization. Magnetic shell, Langevin and wels the dry of dia, para and ferromagnetism, Curie law, Production, and measurement strong magnetic field, Magnetic circuit and electromagnets.

Thermodynamic treatment of Seebeck, Peltier and Thomson effect and their applications, Moving coil aperiodic and ballistic galvanometer, growth and decay of current in electrical circuits, Oscillatory discharge of a condenser, AC circuits LR, CR, and LCR circuits), Complex impedance and reactance power factor, de salty bridge, Anderson bridge, Carey Foster bridge. Photoelectric emission, Einstein photoelectric equation, Photoelectric, Photoconductive and Photovoltaic cells.

Elementary ideas about the nucleus and its structure, Binding energy, Size of a nucleus and its determination, Natural radioactivity, Rutherford Sodd theory of radioactive decay, Discovery of the neutron, Isotopes, Artificial radioactivity, Nuclear fission, Reactors. Aston mass spectrograph, Geiger-Muller counter, scintillation counter.

## Practical Syllabus Subsidiary Paper

[Time – 3 hours]

[Full marks – 25]

The paper will include the following experiments. One of which will have to be performed.

- Spectrometer determination of the angle of prism.
- Spectrometer: determination of the refractive index of prism.
- The magnifying power of a telescope.
- The magnifying power of a microscope.
- Determination of wavelength of a light source by Newton’s ring.
- Resolving power of a telescope.
- Measurement of Dip by (a) Dip circle (b) Earth inductor.
- Calibration of ammeter and voltmeter by a potentiometer.
- The figure of merit of a given Moving coil galvanometer.
- Determination of B.G. constant and log decrement.
- Temperature variation of electrical remittances.